Vishal G. Patel, MD,* Kimberly M. Brayton, MD, JD,* Aracely Tamayo, MSW, MPH, Owen Mogabgab, MD,* Tesfaldet T. Michael, MD, MPH,* Nathan Lo, MD,* Mohammed Alomar, MD,* Deborah Shorrock,* Daisha Cipher, PHD,* Shuaib Abdullah, MD,* Subhash Banerjee, MD,* Emmanouil S. Brilakis, MD, PHD*
Objectives: This study sought to perform a weighted meta-analysis of the complication risk during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Background: The safety profile of CTO PCI has received limited study.
Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of 65 studies published between 2000 and 2011 reporting procedural complications of CTO PCI. Data on the frequency of death, emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, stroke, myocardial infarction, perforation, tamponade, stent thrombosis, major vascular or bleeding events, contrast nephropathy, and radiation skin injury were collected.
Results: A total of 65 studies with 18,061 patients and 18,941 target CTO vessels were included. Pooled estimates of outcomes were as follows: angiographic success 77% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.3% to 79.6%); death 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1% to 0.3%); emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery 0.1% (95% CI: 0.0% to 0.2%); stroke <0.01% (95% CI: 0.0% to 0.1%); myocardial infarction 2.5% (95% CI: 1.9% to 3.0%); Q-wave myocardial infarction 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1% to 0.3%); coronary perforation 2.9% (95% CI: 2.2% to 3.6%); tamponade 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2% to 0.5%); and contrast nephropathy 3.8% (95% CI: 2.4% to 5.3%). Compared with successful procedures, unsuccessful procedures had higher rates of death (0.42% vs. 1.54%, p < 0.0001), perforation (3.65% vs. 10.70%, p < 0.0001), and tamponade (0% vs. 1.65%, p < 0.0001). Among 886 lesions treated with the retrograde approach, success rate was 79.8% with no deaths and low rates of emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (0.17%) and tamponade (1.2%).
Conclusions: CTO PCI carries low risk for procedural complications despite high success rates.
Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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